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Weight Loss of Science: What to Avoid?

by | Apr 4, 2021 | How to Lose Weight | 0 comments

  1. Causes
  2. Caloric Balance
  3. Metabolism
  4. Why
  5. Evaluate
  6. What To Avoid
  7. Calculation of demand
  8. Nutritional Breakdown
  9. Example
  10. Training

Weight loss and Science

Weight loss can be defined as real science.

Mainly because the mechanisms that regulate the balance between the body masses – therefore weight – are numerous, complex, and, in small part, not completely clear.

Just think of how many methods, and theories, you can meet by doing just a brief search on the internet.

Everyone seems to be saying their own, which is why users often find it challenging to choose.

It is advisable to choose a “true” professional.

He will not be the one with the highest number of degrees of study, or even a doctor compulsory, but the one who has carried out the specific course of study.

Food therapists are a profession that “should” have a specific academic background.

The conditional quote does not allow a forceful controversy, let alone make any protests about the current regulations.

Still, it is good to know that there are specific graduate courses designed for the professional training of the food therapist.

Which are:

  • specialization of the medical course in food sciences (four years),
  • diet (three years entirely devoted to dietetics and diet therapy)
  • science of human nutrition (two years reserved for those who already have a first-level degree).

Only doctors can make a diagnosis of disease, prescribe tests and medications.

In the US, the most sought-after professional figure is that of the nutritionist.

Very few, however, know that there is no real legal qualification.

It is called a nutritionist who successfully ends the science of human nutrition.

However, any doctor or biologist who works in nutrition – dieticians are excluded but can still exercise.

Reading “nutritionist” then runs the risk of getting into the hands of those who may not have studied food, nutrition, and diet.

Dieticians and nutritionists (all of them) can prescribe diets but only in a physiological setting; in the context of the established disease, the supervision of a doctor is required.

Also, personal trainers and sports technicians do not belong to any of these categories.

They can be limited to food advice only.

This is why it is advisable to continue to deepen the course of future studies; therapists must have carried out at least one of the three paths mentioned above.


Before going into the detail of “how to do” to lose weight effectively, efficiently, and therefore correctly, we give a brief overview of the causes of fat accumulation.

Causes of fat accumulation

The adipose is a tissue with specific functions of energy reserve and endocrine function.

In addition to accumulating calories in the form of triglycerides, adipose constantly interacts with the body.

When it’s very full, it tells the brain to eat less (by secreting a leptin hormone).

The opposite stimulates the energy intake with the diet. There is a strong correlation between the metabolic and endocrine activity of adipose tissue and the action of other essential hormones like insulin – which we will see later.

It’s no use going around.

Dysfunctions and diseases apart, the only real cause of fat accumulation is the excessive intake of food and caloric drinks as a function of the total energy expenditure.

This correlation is called caloric balance and summarized as follows: [IN – energy OUT].

The first is the diet taken, and the second is taken away by metabolic processes.

For example, eating 10 and consuming 5 gives a positive caloric balance (+5), resulting in an anabolic action (i.e., building).

Which results in fat accumulation.

Conversely (IN 5 and OUT 10), a negative caloric balance is obtained (-5), leading to a catabolic (i.e., demolition) action or the depletion of excess fat.

Caloric Balance for weight loss

energy IN

We realized that IN energy is all that comes from the mouth.

Food contains many types of nutrients, 3 of which also have a caloric function.

They are carbohydrates (3.75 kcal/100 g), lipids (9 kcal/100 g), and proteins (4 kcal/100 g) – ethyl alcohol.

Which cannot be used directly in cells, is converted to fatty acids by providing 7 kcal/100 g.

The sum of these macro-nutrients determines the caloric power of food, then of the recipe and the dish, of the meal, and finally of the diet.

These nutrients also have other metabolic functions, and destinations do not deny this mechanism: calories matter.

energy OUT

Everything we do, from survival itself, comes at a cost.

First of all, the basal metabolism (MB) is needed to keep the human machine active in the absence of other influential factors.

They follow the level of physical activity, which includes all muscle activities (from scratching to sports):

  • thermoregulation (being the man a hot-blooded animal)
  • The specific dynamic action of food (the cost of digesting and metabolizing what we eat).

The sum of all this determines the total caloric cost. Based on this calculation, it is possible to trace the full energy – information needed to lose weight.

How to act on caloric balance to lose weight

We, therefore, have two options for taking an active part in the calorie budget:

  • Increase the need (i.e., OUT power) by acting on modifiable factors
  • Decreasing income (i.e., IN energy) by reducing diet.

The need is not constant.

It differs not only in an interindividual but also in an intra-individual way. 

Moreover, since our existence is characterized by a change in health, energy expenditure will be different from one day to the next.

The factors that may increase the need (for an increase in total calorie expenditure):

  • are growth
  • disease
  • exposure to uncomfortable environmental conditions
  • pregnancy and lactation
  • greater muscle mass
  • oxygen debt post-training
  • EPOC, etc.

But they penalize it, of course:

  • old age
  • insufficient muscle mass
  • comfort, etc.

The weight loss diet can be managed in a manner that suits your needs.

The basic principles are not many and could be summarized as follows:

  • Bust provides fewer calories than the ones it spends (caloric level)
  • Be balanced (also depending on the subjectivity)
  • Be sustainable both psychologically (it must not upset habits)
  • metabolically (it must not fall below 70% of standard caloric requirements).

But be careful; we must not use scapegoats or abuses.

Still, to lose weight, we must always have motivation, commitment, fatigue.

To find out more:

Lose weight fast – Does it hurt?


If you take on the above, you would already have the right tools to lose weight. But sometimes that is not enough. We know that not everyone weight loss down in the same way, but we don’t focus on the reason. Some blame age, the laziness of metabolism, genetic predisposition, etc. Everything affects, but you have to try to give the right dimension to the various factors.

Most often, the blame lies with poor metabolic efficiency and effectiveness, which some call flexibility (cit.). This property, which should characterize each of us, is often adversely affected by factors such as diet and lifestyle.

A healthy metabolism is key to weight loss at the same time.

What needs to be done to have good metabolic flexibility?

The speech would be highly complex. So we will “cut it to the bone.”

Let’s start from an assumption: it is unnecessary to do anything strange to have good metabolic flexibility.

It would be enough:

  • Follow a more or less balanced diet
  • Exercise regularly, be it aerobic or anaerobic.

Here, paradoxically, we’ve already cut out 99 percent of people who need to lose weight.

What we would like to convey to you, however, are different concepts than the obvious.

Two words about insulin: how it should be handled and why it is not the enemy

Insulin is a peptide hormone with anabolic function secreted by the endocrine pancreas in response to food intake, especially carbohydrates, and fats, and proteins.

It mainly reduces blood sugar by synthesizing glycogen from blood glucose by depositing it (muscles and liver).

Promotes the synthesis of fatty acids and their deposit in adipose tissue: 

  • optimizes muscle protein synthesis,
  • reduces liver and muscle glycogen-glycolysis,
  • muscle proteolysis,
  • lipolysis in adipose

For this reason, many people think that insulin is a “fatty hormone.”

In physiological conditions and total functioning – typical of athletes – insulin has a compartment function (cit.) instead.

This can improve the use of energy macronutrients such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids, emphasizing the muscle.

This is beneficial for muscle recovery and growth and at the expense of fatty tropism.

It affects the insulin-dependent tissues, such as the muscle tissue that receives it thanks to receptors called GLUT4.

On the other hand, if the muscle sensitivity to insulin is reduced, it will mainly be the pipe to receive most of the nutrients.

How to improve insulin sensitivity? Simple, with constant and intense training and maintaining a normal weight.

A sedentary and high-calorie diet reduces the sensitivity to insulin, impairing its comparative ability.

If resting blood glucose tends to increase (>100 mg/dl), insulin sensitivity begins to fall.

Therefore, it is necessary to establish a high-calorie regimen and carry out at least 3 weekly aerobic exercises with high-intensity peaks.

A more or less balanced diet

A nutritional balance means “not excluding any group of foods,” or instead not denying the caloric distribution of energy macronutrients.

This is because, by keeping the same calories, increasing or decreasing one of the macro-energy sources, it is inevitable that one must reduce or increase the others.


  • Reducing fat too much, you can consume fat, but in the long term, this function loses its effectiveness, and the body tends to keep those taken with the diet
  • Reducing carbohydrates too much, glucose metabolism is worsened, and the destination of food is impaired as soon as we start introducing them again
  • Decreasing the protein too much, you run the risk of not having enough amino acids for protein synthesis (especially in sports activity).

Regular exercise, both aerobic and anaerobic

There are many reasons.

We start from the assumption that low-intensity aerobic activity can directly oxidize lipids.

However, even if they were from adipose tissue, the weight loss effect would be limited to a few grams per session.

The mixture of energy macronutrients is increasingly unbalanced on carbohydrates from muscle glycogen.

However, this is a good thing because emptying these reserves causes the body to “intelligently” use carbohydrates in the diet.

Anaerobic exercise can be lactating (lactic acid production).

I understood as overcoming the anaerobic threshold, or algicide, if lasting so short (a few seconds) that only creatine phosphate is used is required.

If prolonged enough, the intensity to achieve a massive production of lactic acid has the benefit of significantly increasing calorie consumption and high intensity.

Positively affect the efficiency of glucose metabolism, the increase of mitochondria and certain cell enzymes, cardiovascular and respiratory function, and, in the context of appropriate exercises, increase muscle mass.


We are sure that most readers are already wondering: “but who makes me do it?” None, which is why it is advisable to start a weight loss process only once the right motivation has been achieved.

Until then, better focus on that.

In this regard, it might help to know that overweight and obesity are associated with a high-risk index for health, therefore death or permanent disability.

These risks include:

  • changes in cardiac function, heart function, left ventricular dysfunction
  • increased blood pressure
  • increased cholesterol and triglyceridemia
  • chronic increase in blood sugar and type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • thrombosis and embolisms, with related coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction, and stroke
  • tendency to hyperuricemia
  • fatty hepatic steatosis
  • esophageal, gastric, and intestinal diseases
  • kidney disease, such as lithiasis
  • gallbladder disease, such as calculous
  • joint problems, especially at the spine, and lumbago and sciatica of various nature
  • various types of cancer
  • chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases (such as psoriasis but not only)
  • problems with the administration of anesthetics during surgery
  • reduction in quality of life and work capacity, etc.

That should be enough.

To find out more:

Lose weight fast (and better) – Tips and contraindications


Logically, the ideal would be to turn to a good dietitian who has all the knowledge – not necessarily high-tech tools – to assess our physical condition.

But not everyone is willing to spend money on a similar service – in our opinion, starting badly with the project.

Therefore, it is possible to determine whether you need to lose weight or a simple aesthetic need.

Body Mass Index

However, for those who prefer self-assessment, you can solve this formula:

(BMI) Body Index = Weight (kg) /Height2 (m)

If the value falls within the range of 18.5 to 24.9, you are at an average level. Values below 18.5 indicate malnutrition, and values from 25 up indicate an overweight state. This benchmark is not reliable for athletes and exceptionally trained subjects.

If the result is an indicator of overweight, it becomes necessary to begin a weight loss process.


Going to the practical side, before you hold the calculator, let’s take a brief rundown on how you need to organize yourself to succeed in a weight loss process.

  • First of all, it is advisable to address the general practitioner, take a physical examination and medical examination, and perhaps a blood test. This way, we would have more data on which we could work on the diet. The nutrition and training of a person with a high cardiovascular risk are not the same as average.
  • Secondly, it is appropriate to choose a physical activity that is a sport or otherwise enjoyable motor – do not think of the most effective one. If done necessarily, it would have the minutes counted.
  • We need to look at the general style. For example, all journeys that do not require a car, i.e., within a radius of at least 5 km from home, must be faced on foot or bicycle, without elevators and escalators.
  • Do you eat out of the house? In addition to one, which could be considered the “slim,” all others must be eliminated. If it is not possible to eat lunch at home for work reasons? You prepare the meal at home the evening before “a porter,” or you research places where you can buy what you need as a market or restaurants (canteens, bars, restaurants). That also offers “normal” recipes (chicken dish, tomato paste, etc.). It is not conceivable to sit at the table every day as it was on December 25.
  • Alcohol, junk food, and sweets out the menu: STOP.
  • Estimate results weekly or every 10 days. Because of the short deadline of the objective it is renew for each micro-cycle – for example, losing 0.7 or 1.0 kg at a time. If the weight loss is excessive, increase the calories. If it is insufficient, reduce them. Caution, of course, increases muscle mass that may hide an actual reduction in fat – especially the first months of the gym.

What To Avoid

The correct way to lose weight is to reduce fat content. 

Relying on alternative systems such as fluid loss is dangerous and unnecessary.

It can lead to cramps due to substantial mineral loss and increase blood viscosity, with severe cardiovascular risks in those at risk.

Also, muscle mass loss is not contemplated.

Because counterproductive indicator of a glucoside or protein imbalance – carbohydrate deficiency increases muscle catabolism as much as protein deficiency.

Weight loss Calculation

As mentioned above, the energy requirement corresponds to the total energy expenditure, which consists of several elements.

Calculating basal metabolism

Basal metabolism (MB) is the most influential factor in expenditure, therefore total calorie requirement.

The calculation of the basal metabolism indicates the minimum amount of energy (expressed in kcal) essential for the performance of vital functions (thermoregulation, respiration, blood circulation, and metabolic activities). 

Harris-Benedict (1919) is perhaps the most immediate of all the many formulas:

  • Men: = 66 + [13.7 x weight (kg)] + [5 x height (cm)] – (6.8 x age)
  • Women: = 65 + [9.6 x weight (kg)] + [1.9 x height (cm)] – (4.7 x age)

Calculation of dietary-induced thermogenesis

It represents the amount of energy that the body spends on metabolizing digested foods. 

It is quantified as an average of 10% of the Basal Metabolism.

Labor level and Working Metabolism

You can estimate your activity level and then the multiplying factor using the following values:

  • The activity level is for a multiplier factor that calculate the Working Metabolism (ML) = BMR. x Multiplying Factor

Power consumption for training

It represents a calorie increase due to sporting activity. You can use one of many online computers to determine this value.

This principle must consider the subject’s weight and age, the intensity, and duration of the effort.

To find out more:

Lose weight on the Belly

Nutritional Breakdown

We have finally achieved our total calorie requirement or our daily energy expenditure.

We will reduce about 30% to achieve a sustainable low-calorie diet. It remains understand what to put in there.

So, to choose which foods to feed into a meal, we need to have more specificity about what we need.

In practice, how many:

  • Proteins, carbohydrates, and fats do we need to put into the diet?
  • Meals and how abundant will they be?

How many macronutrients in the Diet

25 to 30 % of the total fat energy, at least 0.8 (or 1.0) and not more than 1.6 g/kg physiological body weight of protein (in sedentary subjects) and the rest carbohydrates.

Therefore, from the total calories, you will proceed by counting first the fats and proteins and, by derivation from the remaining calories, finally carbohydrates.

Also, we can use Hatfield strategy 1-2-3, this means, the total of calories will take off up to 50% by carbohydrates, 33% by proteins, and 17% by fat.

However, it is not considerate in line with the general recommendations.

One last system is to regulate a demand independent of calories but estimated on real weight.

In this regard, a diet is based on about: 3 g / kg of carbohydrates, 2 g / kg of protein, and 1 g / kg of fat.

The ratios will fall based on the percentage reduction.

How many calories per meal and how to distribute macronutrients

As we said at the beginning, it is calories that matter above all.

On the other hand, especially by training, it can be beneficial for recovery and muscle growth, nutrient optimization, and weight loss.

Concentrating most of the energy between before and immediately after the workout.

Daily recommendation, In general, 5 meals or at most 6, but not less than 4.

Breakfast takes in about 15% of calories, side snacks 5%, lunch and dinner 35 or 40% at most.

It is also believed that carbohydrate intake should be concentrated at the beginning of the day for a higher glucose and insulin sensitivity.

It is, however, a slightly older concept, better to respect the development of physical activity.

  • These are complex carbohydrate sources: cereals, tubers, and legumes
  • Protein: meat, fish, eggs, and dairy products – according to legumes
  • Of fat: seasonings, oilseeds, cheese, egg yolk, fatty cuts of meat, and fish.


A hypocaloric diet, with 100 g of protein and 1500 kcal – suitable for a caloric rate of 2100 kcal.

Attention: such food advice is an example and is not mean to replace medical advice.

Ask your health care provider for advice before starting any nutritional program.

There is no responsibility to follow such advice.

  • Breakfast: milk p.s. 250 ml, 40 g oatmeal
  • Snack: 1 fruit and 2-3 gallons
  • Lunch: 80 g of wholemeal pasta with tomato sauce, a can of brine tuna, and a salad plate. Maximum 1 tablespoon of oil
  • Snack: 2 lean white yogurt
  • Dinner: 200 grams of meat or fish, 1 plate of cooked vegetables, 2 slices of whole bread. Maximum 1 tablespoon of oil
  • Snack: 100 g of milk flakes.


Training is a sore point because you need to find the right compromise between duty and pleasure.

Of course, you can’t pretend that every sedentary housewife begins to practice cross-fit, as well as you can’t force a powerlifter to swim 4 hours a week.

This is why we recommend using the brain.

The housewife will start from the weights or water gym, while the powerlifter will approach mixed functional disciplines.

However, the recommendation is not to fall below the 3 weekly sessions of 50-60 minutes each, preferably shared between potentiation and general aerobic resistance.

It is necessary to stimulate muscle growth and the power of anaerobic energy systems and aerobic capacity with:

  • consequent cardiovascular
  • respiratory adaptation
  • gesture function
  • muscle flexibility
  • and joint mobility.

Only by training the full-fledged organism will it be possible to maintain high-calorie consumption in operation and after exercise, with the consequent excellent distribution of the macronutrients.

Introduced with the diet and progress in weight loss body conditioning.

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